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Тема Празници и ритуали в Римската империя  
Автор ~quo vadis (?)
Публикувано05.07.08 08:41

Здравейте. Историята на Древния Рим винаги ме е вълнувала и съвсем скоро реших да събера празниците в Римската империя по дати.
Предполагам,чe няма да имате нищо против,ако започна с Март - първия месец от годината според древните римляни.

Февруари се оказва последен.

На мен ми е интересно какво са празнували и какви обреди са извършвали в чест на божествата си.

Редактирано от ~quo vadis на 05.07.08 11:13.

Тема Re: Мартнови [re: ~quo vadis]  
Автор Kaлoмaин (Баба Яга)
Публикувано05.07.08 09:24

Не открих нищо за март, но попаднах на един интересен празник през юни - нещо, което в превод би трябвало да звучи като ден на изселването или нещо подобно. Който не можел на този ден да си плати наема бил изхвърлян.

Като гледам май много са почитали Минерва и са го правили точно около пролетното равноденствие.

Тема Априлнови [re: ~quo vadis]  
Автор ~quo vadis (?)
Публикувано05.07.08 09:31

1 April

Veneralia celebrated to honor Venus

The Veneralia (April 1) was the Ancient Roman festival of Venus Verticordia ("Changer of hearts"), the goddess of love and beauty. The worship of the goddess Fortuna Virilis ("Bold fortune") was also part of this festival.

In Rome, women removed jewelry from the statue of the goddess, washed her, and adorned her with flowers, and similarly bathed themselves in the public baths wearing wreaths of myrtle on their heads. It was generally a day for women to seek divine help in their relations with men.

12 April

The Roman holiday of Cerealia begins

Cerealia was a 7-day festival celebrated in ancient Rome in honor of the goddess Ceres. The exact dates of the April festival are uncertain: it may have started on April 12 and ended on April 19 (Or it may have started on the Ides of April, i.e. April 13, or even on April 7.)

In Rome, this was the primary festival of Ceres and was accompanied by the Ludi Ceriales or "Games of Ceres" in the Circus Maximus. Ovid's description (Fasti iv.494) mentions that Ceres/Demeter's search for her lost daughter Proserpina was represented by women clothed in white, running about with lighted torches.

15 April

the Fordicia was celebrated in honor of Terra

The Fordicia, also called Hordicidia, was a Roman festival for the goddess Tellus held on April 15. During the ceremony, a pregnant cow was sacrificed, the calf fetus burned and the ashes saved for the Parilia festival.

19 April - The Roman holiday of Cerealia ends

21 April

the Parilia was held in honor of Pales

As described in the Fasti (a series of poems by Ovid), the agricultural festival of Parilia, performed annually on April 21, was aimed to cleanse both sheep and shepherd. It was carried out in acknowledgment to the Roman deity Pales, god of shepherd and sheep and of whose gender is uncertain. While the festival seems to have originated before the founding of Rome in 753 BCE, most references note a distinction between the rural and urban forms, illustrating the combination of the ceremony with other aspects of Roman religion in the urban setting.
The rural structure of the festival was carried out by the shepherd himself. After the sheep pen had been decorated with green branches and a wreath draped on the gate, the remainder of the ceremony took place in a sequential fashion. At the first sign of daylight, the shepherd would purify the sheep: by sweeping the pen and then constructing a bonfire of straw, olive branches, laurel, and sulfur. The noises produced by this burning combination were interpreted as a beneficial omen. The shepherd would jump through this flame, dragging his sheep along with him. Offerings of millet, cakes, and milk were then presented before Pales, marking the second segment of the ceremony. After these offerings, the shepherd would wet his hands with dew, face the east, and repeat a prayer four times. Such prayers requested Pales’ assistance in freeing the shepherd and the flock from evils brought about by accidental wrongdoings (e.g. trespassing on sacred grounds and removing water from a scared water source). The final portion of the rural festival made use of the beverage burranica, a combination of milk and sapa (boiled wine). After consumption of this beverage, the shepherd would leap through the fire three times, bringing and end to the ceremony.

The urban form of the Parilia, on the other hand, was blended with other Roman religious practices and carried out by a priest. Ovid personally participated in this form and describes his experiences in the Fasti. While the central actions of the rural ceremony carry over, the urban form adds two other religious festivals: the Fordicidia and the October Horse. The Fordicidia sacrifices a pregnant cow to the deity Tellus to promote cattle and field fertility. The unborn calf is then removed from the womb and burnt. The October Horse is the right hand horse of the team that won a particular chariot race on October 15 of the previous year.Together, the ashes of the unborn calf and the blood from the head of the October Horse are mixed by the Vestals and are added to the burning bean straw of the bonfire.
By the end of the late Republic, the Parilia became associated with the birthday of Rome. While there exists numerous accounts on the founding of Rome, the particular one related to the Parilia is described by Ovid in the Fasti. According to this myth, Romulus, upon landing in Rome on the day of the Parilia, took a stick and engraved a line in the ground (the pomerium) that defined the boundaries of the new city. He then prayed to the gods Jupiter, Mars, and Vesta asking for protection of this area. However, his brother Remus, unaware of the boundaries, crossed the line and was struck down by the god Celer.

Over time, and under the influence of several Roman rulers, the structure of the Parilia changed. First, after Caesar heard the news of Roman Victory at Munda in 45 BC (around the date of the Parilia), he added games to the ceremony. At these games, the citizens would wear crowns in Caesar’s honor. Secondly, in 121 AD Hadrian founded a new temple of Venus and Roma and changed the festival’s name to Romaea.

25 April

Robigalia in honor of Robigus

In Roman mythology, Robiga (meaning green or life) along with her brother, Robigus, were the fertility gods of the Romans. Her festival is the Robigalia and is on April 25.

The first, the Greater Litanies ("Litania Major", or "Romana) or Major Rogation, was introduced as a Christian substitute for Robigalia.

28 April

first day of the Floralia in honor of Flora

The Floralia, also known as the "Florifertum," was an ancient Roman festival dedicated to the goddess Flora. It was held on April 27 to May 3 and symbolized the renewal of the cycle of life, marked with dancing, drinking, and flowers. The Floralia was on the IV Kalends May. Dedicated to Flora, the goddess of flowers and vegetation, this day was considered by the prostitutes of Rome to be their own. While flowers decked the temples, Roman citizens wore colorful clothing instead of the usual white, and offerings were made of milk and honey to Flora.

29 April - second day of the Floralia in honor of Flora

30 April - third day of the Floralia in honor of Flora.

Редактирано от ~quo vadis на 05.07.08 09:36.

Тема Re: Мартнови [re: Kaлoмaин]  
Автор ~quo vadis (?)
Публикувано05.07.08 09:38

Да, наред с Марс и Минерва е била богиня по-скоро на войната,отколкото на занаятите и мъдростта,както в древна Гърция.

Що за празник ще е този,в който ако не си платиш наема,ще те изхвърлят ?!?

Редактирано от ~quo vadis на 05.07.08 12:00.

Тема Re: Априлнови [re: ~quo vadis]  
Автор Capa_ ()
Публикувано05.07.08 09:51

Нещо за май открих, но е свързано със земеделието.

Feriae Conceptivae
Празникът Ambarvalia бил за очистване на нивите от злите сили. На този ден жертвените животни били извеждани около границите, след което били принасяни в жертва на съответните божества или духове. Това била магия за освобождаване на земята от лоши влияния. Ambarvalia бил и държавен, и частен празник и се отнасял както за изгонване на злото от държавните граници, така и за частните земеделски имоти. Той бил подвижен празник (conceptivae) и по тази причина не е записан в календарите, но, изглежда, се е провеждал през месец май, защото тогава в селските месечни календари се казва segetes lustrantur (нивите са очиствани). Подобен земеделски празник в чест на Dea Dia бил провеждан през май от fraters arvales в свещената им горичка извън Рим. Че той е бил идентичен с Ambarvalia не е сигурно, при все че има такива предположения.
Повече се знае за частното провеждане на празника, тъй като у Катон е запазена земеделска молитва, а Вергилий и Тибул дават поетично описание на празника. Катон разказва как трябва да се очисти земята. Правело се тържествено жертвоприношение – Suovetaurilia. Тогава из земеделския участък прекарвали свиня, овца и бик, след което те били принасяни в жертва, но ако не бъдат изпратени благоприятни знамения или, ако някое от животните не задоволява Mars, компенсацията трябвало да бъде направена с по-късна жертва: agrum lustrare sic oportet: impera suouitaurilia circumagi: 'cum diuis uolentibus quodque bene eueniat, mando tibi, Mani, uti illace suouitaurilia fundum agrum terramque meam, quota ex parte siue circumagi siue circumferenda censeas, uti cures lustrare.' Ianum Iouemque uino praefamino, sic dicito: 'Mars pater, te precor... 23.
Докато Катон говори най-вече за централните ритуали, поетите дават повече информация за фона на селските празници на очистването, където покрай Mars е почитана и богинята на растежа – Ceres. Тибул призовава Бакх и Ceres, и предупреждава, че никакви зловещи думи не трябва да бъдат викани, като: frugeslustramus et agros, ritus ut a prisco traditus extat avo24. На този свещен ден не трябвало да се работи, а за предната нощ сексуалното въздържание било задължително. С шествие, на което хората били облечени в бяло и с маслинени клонки в косите, жертвената овца била изпровождана до олтара. Следвала молитвата, жертвите бивали принасяни, и след гадаенето по вътрешностите им, щом всичко се окажело добре, парчетата от месото бивали изпичани и присъстващите сядали да ядат и пият. Вергилий разказва, че се се правело същото, както и на празника Cerialia – жертвеното животно три пъти било развеждано из младото зърно, следвано от пееща и танцуваща група хора, с дъбови венци на главите, които призовавали Ceres да отиде в техните къщи.
Такива празненства на Ambarvalia били правени от отделни земеделци още през ранно републиканско време, но това станало и официален празник. Когато Рим се разраснал и вече било невъзможно да се обхождат границите, жертвоприношениеята се правели на точно определени места. Така Страбон припомня как по времето на император Август жреци чествали празник, наречен Ambarvia на място, наречено Festi, между петия и шестия милиарен камък. На същия този ден празникът бил честван и няколко други места, който били обявявани за гранични25. Вероятно той говори за Ambarvalia, но дали жреците били дванайсетте fratres arvales не се знае

Тема Майнови [re: ~quo vadis]  
Автор ~quo vadis (?)
Публикувано05.07.08 09:56

1 May

fourth and last day of the Floralia in honour of Flora

all-female festival in honour of Bona Dea

In Roman mythology, Bona Dea (literally "the good goddess") was the goddess of fertility, healing, virginity, and women. She was the daughter of the god Faunus and was often referred to as Fauna.

Bona Dea was the perpetually virginal goddess, associated with virginity and fertility in women. She was also associated with healing, with the sick being tended to in her temple garden with medicinal herbs. She was regarded with great reverence by lower-class citizens, slaves and women; who went to her seeking aid in sickness or for fertility.

Bona Dea was invoked for healing and for freedom from slavery; many of her worshippers were freed slaves and plebeians, and many were women seeking aid in sickness or for fertility.

She was worshipped in a temple on the Aventine Hill, but her secret rites were performed in the home of a prominent Roman magistrate. The rites were held on December 4, and only included women. Even paintings or drawings of men or male animals were forbidden, along with the words "wine" and "myrtle" because she had once been beaten by Faunus with a myrtle stick after she got drunk. The rites were conducted annually by the wife of the senior magistrate present in Rome and were assisted by the Vestal Virgins. Very little is known about the ceremony, but the worship seems to have been agricultural in origin. The most famous event to do with this festival was its desecration by Publius Clodius in 62 BC by secretly attending the ceremony at the house of the pontifex maximus, Julius Caesar. During the ensuing trial, Clodius' alibi was destroyed by Cicero, which caused the animosity that would define their relationship from then on.

Bona Dea is usually depicted sitting on a throne, holding a cornucopia. The snake is her attribute, a symbol of healing, and consecrated snakes were kept in her temple at Rome, indicating her phallic nature. Her image frequently occurred on ancient Roman coins.

9 May

Feast of the Lemures

In Roman religion, the Lemuralia or Lemuria was a feast during which the ancient Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghosts of the dead from their homes. The unwholesome spectres of the restless dead, the lemures or larvae were propitiated with offerings of beans. On those days, the Vestals would prepare sacred mola salsa (salt cake) from the first ears of wheat of the season.

In the Julian calendar the three days of the feast were 9, 11, and 13 May. The myth of origin of this ancient festival, according to Ovid, who derives Lemuria from a supposed Remuria was that it had been instituted by Romulus to appease the spirit of Remus (Ovid, Fasti, V.421ff; Porphyrius ). Ovid notes that at this festival it was the custom to appease or expel the evil spirits by walking barefoot and throwing black beans over the shoulder at night. It was the head of the household who was responsible for getting up at midnight and walking around the house with bare feet throwing out black beans and repeating the incantation, "With these beans I redeem me and mine" nine times. The household would then clash bronze pots while repeating, "Ghosts of my fathers and ancestors, be gone!" nine times.

Because of this annual exorcism of the noxious spirits of the dead, the whole month of May was rendered unlucky for marriages, whence the proverb Mense Maio malae nubent ("They wed ill who wed in May"), and thus the rush of June weddings— "because the weather is so nice"— in our own day.

13 May - Feast of the Lemures

15 May

Mercuralia in honor of Mercury held

Mercuralia is a Roman celebration known also as the "Festival of Mercury". Mercury was thought to be the god of merchants and commerce. On May 15 merchants would sprinkle their heads, their ships and merchandise, and their businesses with water taken from the well at Porta Capena.

18 May

Festival of Faunus in Ancient Rome

In Roman mythology, Pan's counterpart Faunus was one of the oldest Roman deities, the di indigetes, who was a good spirit of the forest, plains, and fields; when he made cattle fertile he was called Inuus. He was a legendary king of the Latins whose shade was consulted as a god of prophecy, under the name of Fatuus, with oracles in the sacred groves of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself (Peck 1898). The responses were said to have been given in Saturnian verse (Varro, L. L. vii. 36). Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs. W. Warde Fowler suggested that Faunus is identical with Favonius, one of the Roman wind gods (compare the Anemoi).

Тема Re: Априлнови [re: Capa_]  
Автор ~quo vadis (?)
Публикувано05.07.08 10:04

Възможно е да има и такъв празник,защото като им гледам календара,ми то почти няма ден без празник - някои празници дори стигат до 9 дни...Мисля си,че има празници,които наистина са официални за всички и такива,които по-скоро са свързани с работата на обикновените хора в Римската империя.

Тема Юнинови [re: ~quo vadis]  
Автор ~quo vadis (?)
Публикувано05.07.08 10:24

1 June

Festival in honour of Carna

Carna refers to two distinct women from Roman mythology:

Carna was a nymph who lived where Rome would eventually be. Janus fell in love with her and gave her power over door hinges and handles. As a goddess, she was known as Cardea, from cardo hinge.

Carna was a Roman goddess who presided over the heart and other organs. Her festival took place on June 1.

3 June

Festival to Bellona

Bellona was an Ancient Roman war goddess. She is believed to be one of the numinous gods of the Romans (without a particular mythology and possibly of Etruscan origin), and is supposed by many to have been the Romans' original war deity, predating the identification of Mars with Ares. She accompanied Mars into battle and is taken variously as his sister, wife or daughter. She is also (as at her temple in Ostia) syncreted with Magna Mater.

Bellona's attribute is a sword and she is depicted wearing a helmet and armed with a spear and a torch.

Politically, all Senate meetings relating to foreign war were conducted in the Templum Bellonae (Temple of Bellona) on the Collis Capitolinus outside the pomerium.

Bellona's festival was celebrated on June 3.

7 June

first day of the Vestalia (penus vestae) in honor of Vesta

Vesta was celebrated at the Vestalia which took place from June 7 to June 15. On the first day of the festivities the penus Vestae (the curtained sanctum sanctorum of her temple) was opened, for the only time during the year, for women to offer sacrifices in. Such sacrifices included the removal of an unborn calf from a pregnant cow.

Vesta's (in some versions she is called Vestia) fire was guarded at her Temples by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales mentioned in mythology was Rhea Silvia, who with the God Mars conceived Romulus and Remus.

The Vestales were one of the few full time clergy positions in Roman religion. They were drawn from the patrician class and had to observe absolute chastity for 30 years. It was from this that the Vestales were named the Vestal virgins. They could not show excessive care of their person, and they must not let the fire go out. The Vestal Virgins lived together in a house near the Forum (Atrium Vestae), supervised by the Pontifex Maximus. On becoming a priestess, a Vestal Virgin was legally emancipated from her father's authority and swore a vow of chastity for 30 years. This vow was so sacred that if it were broken, the Vestal was buried alive in the Campus Sceleris ('Field of Wickedness'). It is likely that this is what happened to Rhea Silvia. They were also very independent and had many privileges that normal women did not have. They could move around the city but had to be in a carriage.
Vesta is also known as honoring God in Greek mythology.
Vesta was the goddess of the hearth at the centre of atrium and home. It was in the house and home that Vesta was most important as she was the goddess of the hearth and of fire. Vesta was particularly important to women of the household as the hearth was the place where food was prepared and next to it the meal was eaten with offerings being thrown into the fire to seek omens (the future) from the way it burned. Her weakness was that she couldn't fall in love.

8 June - second day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta

9 June - third day of the Vestalia in honor of the goddess Vesta

10 June - fourth day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta

11 June - fifth day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta

Matralia in honor of Mater Matuta

Mater Matuta was an indigenous Roman goddess, whom the Romans eventually made equivalent to the dawn goddess Aurora, and the Greek goddess Eos. Mater Matuta had a temple on the Forum Boarium, and she was also associated with the sea harbors and ports, where there were other temples to her.

Her festival was the Matralia, celebrated on June 11 in her temple at the Forum Boarium. The festival was only for single women or women in their first marriage, who offered prayers for their nieces and nephews, and then drove a slave out of the temple.

12 June - sixth day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta

13 June - seventh day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta ; Quinquatrus Minusculae held in honor of Minerva

14 June - eighth day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta

15 June - ninth and final day of the Vestalia in honor of Vesta

Тема Re: Мартнови [re: ~quo vadis]  
Автор Kaлoмaин (Баба Яга)
Публикувано05.07.08 10:25

Ами не знам - в сайта нямаше оригиналното му име.

Може би е празник на наемодателите...

Тема Re: Мартнови [re: Kaлoмaин]  
Автор saur ()
Публикувано05.07.08 12:25

Наемите се плащали на 30 юни, а на 1 юли се сключвали новите договори за наем. Затова на 1 юли по улиците било пълно с неплатили наема си клетници, прогонени от наемодателите и лишени от оскъдната си движима собственост.
Някои хитреци пък напускали Рим около 1 юли за няколко дни, защото ненаетите на 1 юли жилища след тази дата били предлагани на доста по-нисък наем.

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